Skip to content

Week 11, 2018: A quiet ending

October 18, 2018

Week 11 (October 10 – 15), the final week of our 2018 fall migration monitoring season was by far the slowest of the season, as it usually is since migration for songbirds is all but over at this point and Week 11 is also only 6 days. We banded only 28 birds of 10 species, recaptured 13 birds of 3 species and captured two California Quails which were released unbanded. The number of birds banded is less than half of the 12 year average (since banding in October has been done) of 65.6 birds for Week 11 and makes it one of the slowest weeks in the station’s 18 year history. We had two days with only 1 new bird this week pushing our daily average down to 4.7 birds. To really put this halt in activity in perspective, 28 birds is also our daily average for the season as a whole, which shows that despite the slow ending we still had a very productive season.

The highlights of the week were our 3rd Bewick’s Wren of the season, a species that has never been banded in October before, our 2nd and 3rd Pacific Wrens and our 4.

Song Sparrow is the most frequently banded species of the week for the third time this season with 11, followed by ‘Oregon’ Junco (7), Pacific Wren (2), and Lincoln’s Sparrow (2). All other species this week were only banded on one occasion. While we did not band any new Black-capped Chickadees this week, they were the most recaptured species with 8 occurrences, indicating that most or all individuals of the local resident flock have already been banded.

Song Sparrow and ‘Oregon’ Junco are the only species anywhere close to average for Week 11 with both being slightly below average. Major absences this week are Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Marsh Wren which average about 6 and 3 birds during this week, respectively. Several other species are often banded during week 11 but were lacking this year, including American Goldfinch, both ‘Audubon’s’ and ‘Myrtle’ Yellow-rumped Warblers, Orange-crowned Warbler and Black-capped Chickadee.

Overall, we banded 151 birds of 20 species for the month of October which is actually not too far below the 12 year average of 191, thanks to the busy first two days of the month. However, it is still the second slowest October on record for number of birds banded, and third lowest for species banded.

Below are the banding and recapture totals:

SPECIES Total banded
Song Sparrow 11
‘Oregon’ Dark-eyed Junco 7
Pacific Wren 2
Lincoln’s Sparrow 2
Mallard 1
Bewick’s Wren 1
American Robin 1
Common Yellowthroat 1
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1
Pine Siskin 1

Total: 28 banded of 10 species, and 2 unbanded California Quails


SPECIES Total recaptured
Black-capped Chickadee 8
Song Sparrow 4
Lincoln’s Sparrow 1

Total recaptured: 13 of 3 species


The weather was consistently sunny and warm this week.


Our final banding totals for the season.


Week 10, 2018: A major drop in numbers

October 13, 2018

Week 10 (October 3 – 9) of the 2018 fall banding season saw a major drop in bird activity from the previous weeks with only 59 birds of 14 species banded and 24 of 8 species recaptured. While there is typically a drop in numbers during October, these totals are significantly below the average for Week 10 which is 94.7 birds and about 17 species, and much lower than last year. It’s actually the slowest Week 10 ever (considering only years when banding occurred on all 7 days of the week). This is interesting given that every other week of the season has had above average numbers. Perhaps the early cold snap pushed the remaining migrants out sooner than usual. The daily average for the week is only 8.4 birds which was boosted by one busier day with 18 birds; but most days were actually below that.

The highlight of the week was a Wilson’s Snipe which aren’t banded every year and this was the 15th banding record for VLBO! As one of only two birds banded that day, it gave us a much needed boost of excitement. The other new species for the week was House Sparrow, of which we banded two – only the 3rd and 4th ever banded at VLBO, oddly enough. Other highlights were our second White-throated Sparrow of the season and third Swamp Sparrow. We also recaptured the one Belted Kingfisher that was banded about a month prior.

Lincoln’s Sparrow grabbed the title of most banded species this week with 15, followed by Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Song Sparrow (both with 9), and then ‘Oregon’ Junco (7). Given the low overall total numbers, most species were below average this week with the exception of Lincoln’s Sparrow and ‘Oregon’ Junco. Ruby-crowned Kinglet was only slightly below average. Surprisingly we didn’t catch any White-crowned Sparrows this week. Lincoln’s Sparrow was also the most recaptured species this week with 7 recaps.

Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES Total banded
Lincoln’s Sparrow 15
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 9
Song Sparrow 9
‘Oregon’ Dark-eyed Junco 7
‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 3
Marsh Wren 2
American Robin 2
Orange-crowned Warbler 2
‘Myrtle’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 2
House Sparrow* 2 (3rd and 4th record)
Wilson’s Snipe* 1 (15th record)
Black-capped Chickadee 1
‘Unidentified’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1
Common Yellowthroat 1
Swamp Sparrow 1
White-throated Sparrow 1

Total banded: 59, and 14 species

*Indicates new species for the season


SPECIES Total recaptured
Lincoln’s Sparrow 7
Song Sparrow 6
Orange-crowned Warbler 3
Black-capped Chickadee 2
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 2
‘Oregon’ Dark-eyed Junco 2
Belted Kingfisher 1
Downy Woodpecker 1

Total recaptured: 24, and 8 species


Overall conditions were cold and wet this week.


Our season totals after Week 10

Week 9, 2018: Magnolia Warbler

October 8, 2018

Week 9 (September 26 – October 2) of our 2018 fall migration monitoring season was a great week with well-above average numbers for this time of year and several exciting birds! We banded 183 birds of 17 species which actually makes this the second most productive Week 9 ever. Historically migration really starts to wind down this time of year and the weekly average drops significantly from the previous week to only 120.4 birds. Such a pattern did not occur this year with numbers being almost on par with the previous week, showing a more gradual decrease in migrants rather than a sudden drop. This has been the more typical trend in the last 8 years or so.  We also recaptured 40 birds of 8 species which is above average. The daily total number of birds banded was up and down this week with some very high totals for this time of year and a few low ones. The peak occurred on Monday with 40 birds banded and the mean is 26.1 birds per day.

New species for the season included Swamp Sparrow and White-throated Sparrow, neither of which are caught every year as both are sporadic migrants through our region. Interestingly both species have become more regular in recent years. The most exciting bird of the week by far was a Magnolia Warbler – only the station’s third ever and first since 2011. This species is a true rarity as very few are reported across south-central BC since the vast majority migrate south east of the Rockies. Other highlights of the week were two Sharp-shinned Hawks on the same day, and our second Cassin’s Vireo and third Mallard of the season. We also banded this season’s 76th Wilson’s Warbler which represents a new season record for this species, surpassing the previous record set way back in 2004.

Ruby-crowned Kinglet is the most frequently banded species this week with 31 banded, knocking Orange-crowned Warbler off the top spot for the first time in four weeks, down to second (28). Both are way above average for the week, with kinglet numbers being three times the average! ‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler claimed the third spot with 27 banded; however, when combined with its other conspecifics, Yellow-rumped Warbler is actually the top species with 43. Common Yellowthroat (23) and Lincoln’s Sparrow (20) filled in the remaining top spots. Of the species with multiple numbers banded, almost all are well above average for the week, except for most of the sparrows. Lincoln’s Sparrow is only slightly above average, Song Sparrow is very close to average, and White-crowned Sparrow and Dark-eyed Junco are both below average.  The two most recaptured species are Song Sparrow (23) and Orange-crowned Warbler (17).

Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES 26-Sep 27-Sep 28-Sep 29-Sep 30-Sep 01-Oct 02-Oct Totals
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 3 4 4 2 9 9 31
Orange-crowned Warbler 5 3 2 4 6 5 3 28
‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 4 8 5 9 27
Common Yellowthroat 4 1 5 5 5 3 23
Lincoln’s Sparrow 4 2 3 3 6 2 20
Song Sparrow 7 1 3 1 3 2 17
‘Myrtle’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 2 2 3 8
‘Unidentified’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 2 2 3 8
Marsh Wren 1 2 1 2 6
Spotted Towhee 1 2 3
Sharp-shinned Hawk 2 2
Swamp Sparrow* 1 1 2
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1 1 2
Mallard 1 1
Cassin’s Vireo 1 1
Magnolia Warbler* 1 1
Wilson’s Warbler 1 1
White-throated Sparrow* 1 1
‘Unidentified’ Dark-eyed Junco 1 1
Total 25 22 10 32 30 40 24 183

Total banded: 183, and 17 species

*Indicates new species for the season


SPECIES 19-Sep 20-Sep 21-Sep 22-Sep 23-Sep 24-Sep 25-Sep Totals
Song Sparrow 4 5 3 6 3 2 23
Orange-crowned Warbler 3 3 2 8 1 17
Lincoln’s Sparrow 4 2 1 2 1 10
Common Yellowthroat 2 2 2 2 1 9
Wilson’s Warbler 1 1 1 1 4
Black-capped Chickadee 1 1 2
Warbling Vireo 1 1
Bewick’s Wren 1 1
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 1 1
Swainson’s Thrush 1 1
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1 1
Total 8 13 11 12 11 9 6 70

Total recaptured: 70, and 10 species


Bird Migration School Programs continued this week.


Week 8, 2018: Back to Normal

September 30, 2018

Week 8 (September 19 – September 25) of VLBO’s 2018 fall migration monitoring season was surprisingly quiet compared to last week. We banded 188 birds of 18 species and recaptured of species which is very close to the average number birds banded for week 8 and significantly lower than the last two years, suggesting that migration in our area peaked a week earlier than in more recent years. There were two busier days earlier in the week but overall the days were pretty consistent in terms of numbers banded and recaptured with an average of 36.9 captures per day.

The only new species and most exciting moment of the week was a Townsend’s Warbler which is only the 7th record for the station and brings our season total to 61 species. Other highlights were our 2nd Virginia Rail, a late Nashville Warbler – only our 5th of the season, and our 5th Savannah Sparrow.

Orange-crowned Warbler is once again the most frequently banded species this week, for the third week in the row and their numbers remain above average. Lincoln’s Sparrow (21), followed by ‘Audubon’s’ Warbler (18), Common Yellowthroat (18), Ruby-crowned Kinglet (16) round out the top 5 species. Gray Catbird is clinging on with only 1 new banded and very likely the last of the season, while Yellow and MacGillivray’s Warblers and all flycatcher species have departed from the station. Wilson’s Warblers continue to have a good season and are again well above average this week, as are ‘Audubon’s’ Warbler, and Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Common Yellowthroat, Marsh Wren, and Lincoln’s Sparrow are close to average this week, while Song Sparrow and White-crowned Sparrow continue to underwhelm in numbers. We haven’t yet banded any White-throated Sparrows even though they were observed several times this week and Chipping Sparrows remain strangely absent. Despite being low in number of new birds banded, Song Sparrows were the most recaptured bird this week followed by Orange-crowned Warbler and then Lincoln’s Sparrow.


A comparison of ‘Audubon’s’ (left) and ‘Myrtle’ (right) Yellow-rumped Warblers.

OSCA’s Bird Migration School Program was in full swing this week with classes from different schools visiting us every day of the week. Our annual Open House was also held on Sunday which was a great success with over 100 visitors stopping by to get a close up look at the birds.


Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES 19-Sep 20-Sep 21-Sep 22-Sep 23-Sep 24-Sep 25-Sep Totals
Orange-crowned Warbler 6 15 17 17 9 6 5 75
Lincoln’s Sparrow 3 1 2 3 1 4 7 21
‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 2 5 1 4 3 3 18
Common Yellowthroat 3 4 6 1 2 2 18
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 5 1 7 3 16
Wilson’s Warbler 3 4 3 3 13
Song Sparrow 1 2 2 1 6
Marsh Wren 1 2 1 4
Black-capped Chickadee 1 2 3
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1 1 1 3
‘Unidentified’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 1 2
Virginia Rail 1 1
American Robin 1 1
Gray Catbird 1 1
Cedar Waxwing 1 1
Nashville Warbler 1 1
‘Myrtle’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 1
Townsend’s Warbler* 1 1
Savannah Sparrow 1 1
American Goldfinch 1 1
Total 21 42 32 27 17 26 23 188

Total banded: 188, and 18 species

*Indicates new species for the season


SPECIES 19-Sep 20-Sep 21-Sep 22-Sep 23-Sep 24-Sep 25-Sep Totals
Song Sparrow 4 5 3 6 3 2 23
Orange-crowned Warbler 3 3 2 8 1 17
Lincoln’s Sparrow 4 2 1 2 1 10
Common Yellowthroat 2 2 2 2 1 9
Wilson’s Warbler 1 1 1 1 4
Black-capped Chickadee 1 1 2
Warbling Vireo 1 1
Bewick’s Wren 1 1
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 1 1
Swainson’s Thrush 1 1
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1 1
Total 8 13 11 12 11 9 6 70

Total recaptured: 70, and 10 species


The weather was consistently clear and mild during the week until rain arrived over the weekend.

Week 7, 2018: Orange-crowned Warbler Surge

September 19, 2018

The 7th Week (September 12 – September 18) of VLBO’s 2018 fall migration monitoring season was a big one with a whopping 367 birds of 27 species banded and 111 birds of 13 species recaptured. These totals are attributed mostly to huge numbers of Orange-crowned Warblers passing through the station all week long – we banded 158 and recaptured 44 of them! This is the most ever banded in a single week at VLBO. The number of birds banded is the second highest week 7 total (after 2006) and the number of species is the also the second highest. It is the second biggest week of the season (after our first week) and also the 5th biggest week of VLBO’s history!

The week started well with well above average numbers of birds during the first two days but things really got going starting Friday and continued into the weekend. Saturday was the biggest day of the season and the biggest overall since 2006 with 97 new birds and 25 recaptures! The birds just didn’t stop with almost every net being littered with warblers and sparrows during every single net run! The high volumes continued for two more days after the peak but then really plummeted by Tuesday. All in all we almost doubled the 17-year average for week 7 which is 198 birds.


New species for the season this week were Cassin’s Vireo (1), Hammond’s Flycatcher (1), and Pacific Wren (1), bringing our season total number of species to 60. Other highlights were only our third and quite late Western Tanager, fourth Savannah Sparrow, a Red-shafted Flicker, and 8 Yellow Warblers which gave us a new record for the most Yellow Warblers banded in a season with 150.

As mentioned above, Orange-crowned Warbler is far and beyond the most banded species this week with 158. Other warblers put in good showings as well though with Wilson’s Warblers tying with Lincoln’s Sparrow for second with 35 banded, followed by Common Yellowthroat (30), and ‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler (16). The total for Wilson’s Warbler is way above the average for week 7 (which is only 5.5!) as it of course is for Orange-crowned, though they are expected in good numbers this time of year with an average of 53. Both Yellow and MacGillivray’s Warblers experienced a late surge, as very few are normally banded this late in the season. Common Yellowthroat and Lincoln’s Sparrow are also typically quite abundant this time of the year and passed through in slightly above average numbers this week, while Audubon’s Warbler and Gray Catbird are almost right on average. Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Warbling Vireo, and Marsh Wren took a big jump this week compared to last, and interestingly, so did Cedar Waxwing with 11 banded! These were the first waxwings banded since Week 3 which was a highlight in itself as they are always a joy to band and handle. Seven of them came in single flock in net 18 early one morning! Song Sparrow and ‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow were banded in below average numbers this week.

Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES 12-Sep 13-Sep 14-Sep 15-Sep 16-Sep 17-Sep 18-Sep Total
Orange-crowned Warbler 20 16 39 43 15 19 6 158
Wilson’s Warbler 3 3 6 12 5 4 2 35
Lincoln’s Sparrow 6 4 2 13 5 4 1 35
Common Yellowthroat 2 3 12 7 4 2 30
‘Audubon’s’ Warbler 4 1 3 6 2 16
Song Sparrow 3 1 1 2 3 3 13
Warbling Vireo 1 3 2 3 2 11
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 7 2 2 11
Cedar Waxwing 7 4 11
Yellow Warbler 3 3 1 1 8
Marsh Wren 2 3 2 7
Dusky Flycatcher 1 2 1 1 5
MacGillivray’s Warbler 1 2 2 5
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 5
Gray Catbird 2 1 1 4
Pine Siskin 2 2
‘Red-shafted’ Flicker 1 1
Western Wood-Pewee 1 1
Hammond’s Flycatcher* 1 1
Cassin’s Vireo* 1 1
Black-capped Chickadee 1 1
Pacific Wren* 1 1
Swainson’s Thrush 1 1
Unid. Yellow-rumped Warbler 1 1
Western Tanager 1 1
Spotted Towhee 1 1
Savannah Sparrow 1 1
Total 41 42 71 97 46 49 21 367

Total banded: 367, and 27 species

*Indicates new species for the season


SPECIES 12-Sep 13-Sep 14-Sep 15-Sep 16-Sep 17-Sep 18-Sep Totals
Orange-crowned Warbler 1 4 5 12 5 8 9 44
Song Sparrow 10 3 5 4 1 3 2 28
Common Yellowthroat 1 3 1 2 2 9
Lincoln’s Sparrow 1 2 1 2 3 9
Wilson’s Warbler 2 1 3 6
Warbling Vireo 2 1 3
Gray Catbird 1 1 1 3
Black-capped Chickadee 1 1 2
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 1 1 2
Swainson’s Thrush 1 1 2
Western Wood-Pewee 1 1
Willow Flycatcher 1 1
G’ambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow   1 1
Total 13 12 13 25 14 20 14 111

Total recaptured: 111, and 13 species

Week 6, 2018: The fall migrants move in

September 11, 2018

Week 6 (September 5 – September 11) of the 2018 fall migration monitoring season at VLBO was a fairly standard one for this time of year with 175 birds of 24 species banded and 57 birds of 9 species recaptured. This total includes two California Quails which were released unbanded. The week was actually quite steady in terms of numbers banded with most days having close to 30 new birds, but we did have one of our slowest days on Thursday with only 9 banded. The 17-year mean for Week 6 is 164.9 birds banded and 21.7 species so we are slightly above average on both accounts.

We banded four new species this week: Savannah Sparrow, Tennessee Warbler, and two early representatives of typically late-season species – Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Oregon Junco. The Tennessee Warbler was the biggest highlight of the week as this species isn’t captured every year and this was only the 15th record overall. Intriguingly, it was captured again the following day. Other highlights of the week were our third American Redstart, only our fourth Nashville Warbler, and a late Willow Flycatcher. We also recaptured the Bewick’s Wren that was initially banded in mid-August.

Orange-crowned Warbler grabbed the top spot for most banded species with 42, followed closely by Common Yellowthroat with 39, then Song Sparrow (21), Lincoln’s Sparrow (16), and Gray Catbird (11). While they have certainly been slowing down, Gray Catbirds are still above average for this time of year. Yellow Warblers appear to be the next common local breeder to disappear as their presence is slowly petering off. We are already missing their bright and sunny dispositions! Orange-crowned Warblers are almost right on average in number this week, while Song Sparrow, White-crowned Sparrow, MacGillivray’s Warbler, and Common Yellowthroat are slightly above, which is nice to see as yellowthroats were a bit low in number during earlier weeks. Lincoln’s Sparrow and Wilson’s Warbler numbers were lower than expected, and we are really noticing the absence of Marsh Wren which we should be catching but haven’t now in almost 3 weeks, despite still detecting them around the station on most days. And finally, the appearance of Ruby-crowned Kinglet and ‘Oregon’ Junco feels like an announcement of fall’s arrival.


Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES Total Banded
Orange-crowned Warbler 42
Common Yellowthroat 39
Song Sparrow 21
Lincoln’s Sparrow 16
Gray Catbird 11
‘Audubon’s’ Warbler 9
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 6
Yellow Warbler 5
Dusky Flycatcher 3
Swainson’s Thrush 3
MacGillivray’s Warbler 3
Savannah Sparrow 3*
Wilson’s Warbler 2
Willow Flycatcher 1
Black-capped Chickadee 1
House Wren 1
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 1*
American Robin 1
Tennessee Warbler 1* (15th record)
Nashville Warbler 1
American Redstart 1
Spotted Towhee 1
‘Oregon’ Junco 1*
California Quail (just captured) 2

Total banded: 175, and 24 species

*Indicates new species for the season


SPECIES Total Recaptured
Song Sparrow 17
Common Yellowthroat 13
Gray Catbird 8
Black-capped Chickadee 7
Orange-crowned Warbler 7
Lincoln’s Sparrow 2
Bewick’s Wren 1
Tennessee Warbler 1
Gambel’s White-crowned Sparrow 1

Total recaptured: 57, and 9 species


The weather has been quite a bit fresher this week with plenty of hints at fall being on its way.

Week 5, 2018: Things really slow down

September 5, 2018

Week 5 (August 29th – September 4th) of the 2018 fall migration monitoring season at VLBO was our slowest week yet with 135 birds of 20 species banded and 36 birds of 12 species recaptured. We also caught one California Quail which are released unbanded. These numbers are far below our totals for the previous four weeks but still slightly above the 17 year average of 122.2 birds, which shows that the end of August to early September is typically a very slow time. The number of species banded this week is actually slightly below average, however, and equals that of last year. Banding highlights of the week were our first Belted Kingfisher, 3 Dusky Flycatchers, and 2 Pine Siskins. Another exciting moment came when a Great Egret was observed flying out of the marsh adjacent to our net lanes followed by four Great Blue Herons! It was later seen again flying in the opposite direction high above the marsh, this time followed by two Great Blues, in perfect timing for a visiting group to witness.

Gray Catbirds regained the top spot this week with 24 banded, followed by Orange-crowned Warbler (16), Song Sparrow (14), Lincoln’s Sparrow (14), and Yellow Warbler (13). Willow Flycatcher fell down to 9th spot with only 4 banded indicating that most have already departed on migration. But we did band our record-breaking 125th Willow Flycatcher this week – what a productive year they’ve had at the station! Yellow Warblers had another good week with numbers still well above average and the total banded is getting close to the all time record; however we’ve noticed their number really declining in the last few days. The Northern Waterthrush migration is all but over with only one new individual banded. Gray Catbird numbers are slightly above average again this week and we are seeing more adult birds come through suggesting that more northern birds are starting to move through the station. Orange-crowned Warblers, Wilson’s Warblers, and Song and Lincoln’s Sparrows are right around average this week and White-crowned Sparrows have started to appear with 6 banded which is above average.


We captured a Swainson’s Thrush (left) and Veery (right) in the same net run which allowed for a nice comparison of the two species.

Below are the banding totals:

SPECIES Number Banded
Gray Catbird 24
Orange-crowned Warbler 16
Song Sparrow 14
Lincoln’s Sparrow 14
Yellow Warbler 13
Common Yellowthroat 12
‘Audubon’s’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 9
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 6*
Willow Flycatcher 4
Wilson’s Warbler 4
Dusky Flycatcher 3
Swainson’s Thrush 3
Black-capped Chickadee 2
Veery 2
MacGillivray’s Warbler 2
Pine Siskin 2
Belted Kingfisher 1*
Warbling Vireo 1
‘Unidentified’ Yellow-rumped Warbler 1*
Northern Waterthrush 1
American Goldfinch 1

Total banded: 135, and 20 species

*Indicates new species for the season

SPECIES Number Recaptured
Gray Catbird 10
Song Sparrow 8
Black-capped Chickadee 3
Lincoln’s Sparrow 3
Willow Flycatcher 2
Veery 2
Orange-crowned Warbler 2
Common Yellowthroat 2
Sharp-shinned Hawk 1
Virginia Rail 1
MacGillivray’s Warbler 1
‘Gambel’s’ White-crowned Sparrow 1

Total recaptured: 36, and 12 species


We had clear skies all week for the first time this season. It made looking at distant birds so much easier!